Principles of Raag
The origin of each raga is attributed to some or the other Thaat.
A raga can have at least 5 or more 7 swaras. The Audav of 5-swar, the Shadav of 6-swaras and the Sampurna is of 7-swaras are considered. A combination of these three castes led to the formation of 9 castes.
The most prominent swar of the raga is called the Vaadi, Samvadi is the less prominent swar than Vaadi and the other swaras used in the raga called Anuvadi. Swaras not used in raga are called Vivadi.
To increase the pigmentation of a raga, sometimes a Viwadi swar is used, such as Komal Ni in Kedar, Tivra Ma in Bihag, etc.
Each raga has definite thaat, vadi samvadi, jati, aaroh avaroh, singing time, chalan and the swaras used, which must be followed.
Although the time of all the ragas is fixed, some ragas are sung every time in a particular season like Raga Bahar in spring.
If the swar of a raga is from the Purwang (Sa Re Ga Ma Pa) of the octave, that is to say, then its singing time will be 12:00 pm to 12:00 am. On the contrary, if his swar is from the Uttarang ( Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa°) of the octave, then his singing time will be from 12:00 am to 12:00 pm.
The Vaadi Samvadi of Each raga has a swar in each of the two parts of the octave. Just as the Vaadi is in the Purvang of the octave, then Samvadi will be in the Uttaraang.
The Vaadi and Samvadi have a distance of at least 3 and at most 4 swaras.
Just by considering the Vaadi as Samvadi and Samvadi as Vaadi, the time, behavior and nature of the raga changes completely, such as Bhoopali and Deshkar. Ga-Dha in Bhoopali and Dha-Ga in Deshkar are Vaadi and Samvadi.
In any raga, Suddh Ni has not been considered as a Vaadi and Tivra Ma is not a considered as a Vaadi or Samvadi.
The simultaneous use of both forms of any swar in the raga is forbidden. An exception to this rule is the use of the two together in the raga Lalit.
In ragas in which both the forms of a swar are used, the pure form is used in the Arohan and Vikrit form in the Avarohan, such as Khamaj, Vrindavani Sarang, Desh etc.
The raga which enters from one Thaat to another is called Parmel Parveshak Raga. Such as Jaijaiwanti and Multani.
Ashray ragas are those ragas based on which naming of Thaats is made. Example: Kalyan, Kafi, Bhairav, Bhairavi etc.
In any raga, Ma and Pa are not forbidden together. If fifth forbidden in any raag, then Ma will be present whether it is Shuddh or Tivra.
The Chalan of serious ragas is more prevalent in the Purvangas of the Mandra and Middle Octaves and the Chalan of Fickle Raag in the Uttaraang and Taar Saptak of the Mid-Octave.
To increase the pigmentation of the raga, sometimes the shadow of other ragas is shown, which is called Tirobhav-Aavirbhav. This action is not mandatory for any raga.